Missing Data Imputation with Bayesian Maximum Entropy for Internet of Things Applications

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(From the article abstract)

The Internet of Things (IoT) enables the seamless integration of sensors, actuators and communication devices for real-time applications. IoT systems require good quality sensor data in order to make real-time decisions.

However, values are often missing from the sensor data collected owing to faulty sensors, a loss of data during communication, interference and measurement errors. Considering the spatiotemporal nature of IoT data and the uncertainty of the data collected by sensors, we propose a new framework with which to impute missing values utilizing Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) as a convenient means to estimate the missing data from IoT applications. Missing sensor measurements adversely affect the quality of data, and consequently the performance and outcomes of IoT systems.

Our proposed framework incorporates BME in order to impute missing values in diverse IoT scenarios by making use of the combination of low- and high-precision sensors. Our approach can incorporate the measurement errors of low- precision sensors as interval quantities along with the high-precision sensor measurements, making it highly suitable for real-time IoT systems. Our framework is robust to variations in data, requires less execution time, and requires only a single input parameter, thus outperforming existing IoT data imputation methods. The experimental results obtained for three IoT datasets demonstrate the superiority of the BME framework as regards accuracy, running time and robustness.
The framework can additionally be extended to distributed IoT nodes for the online imputation of missing values.

This article is a contribution from the IoTCrawler partner University of Murcia for IEEE, March 2020.

Aurora González-Vidal, Punit Rathore [IEEE Member], Aravinda S. Rao [IEEE Member], José Mendoza-Bernal, Marimuthu Palaniswami [IEEE Fellow] and Antonio F. Skarmeta-Gómez [IEEE Member].

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